고대 사회의 편지 양식과 바울 서신

1. 소개/추천의 편지

Opening
Apollonios to Sarapion, the strategos and gymnasiarch, many greetings and continual good health.

Body
Isidoros, who carries this letter to you, is a member of my household.
Please regard him as recommended and, about whatever he should approach you, do it for him on my account.
By doing this (for me), I shall be favored by you. Moreover, in turn, you must indicate whatever you should want, and I shall act accordingly without hesitation.

Closing
Take care of yourself to stay well. Good-bye (erroso). (Year) 36 of Caesar, Phaophi 26.

– A to B의 서두
– 친근한 형태의 인사말 (erroso)

 

2. 청원의 편지

Opening
To King Ptolemy, greetings from Philistia, daughter of Lysias, resident in Trikomia.

Body
I am wronged by Petechon. For as I was bathing in the baths of the aforesaid village, on Tybi 7 of the year 1, and had stepped out to soap myself he, being bathman in the women’s rotunda and having brought in the jugs of hot water, emptied one over me and scalded my belly and my left thigh down to the knee, so that my life was in danger. On finding him, I gave him into the custody of Nechthosiris, the chief policeman of the village, in the presence of Simon the epistates.
I beg you therefore, O king, if it pleases you, as a suppliant who has sought your protection, not to suffer me, who am a working woman to be treated so lawlessly, but to order Diophanes the strategos to instruct Simon the epistates and Nechthosiris the policeman to bring Petechon before him that Diophanes may inquire into the case,
hoping that, having sought your protection, O king, the common benefactor, I may obtatin justice.

Closhing
Farewell (eutuchei).

– To B, A의 조금 더 정형화된 형태의 서두
– 보내는 사람에 대한 자세한 소개 

 

3. 가족편지

Opening
Apollinarios to his mother, Taesion, many greetings.
Before all else I wish that you are well,
making obeisance on your behalf to all the gods.
And when I found someone who was journeying to you from Cyrene, I thought it a necessity to inform you about my welfare; you must inform me at once, in turn, about your safety and that of my brothers.

Body
And now I am writing to you from Portus, for I have not yet gone up to Rome and been assigned. When I am assigned and know where I will be, I will tell you immediately; and, for your part, do not hesitate to write about your welfare and that of my brothers. If you do not find someone coming to me, write to Socrates and he will transmit it to me.

Closing
I greet (salute) my brothers much, and Apollinarios and his children, and Kalalas and his children, and all your friends. asklepiades salutes you.
I pray that you are well. I arrived in Portus on Pachon 25. (Postscript in a second hand:) Know that I have been assigned to Misenum, for I found out later (i.e., after the rest of the letter had been written).

– 제 3자의 안부를 묻는 형태
– 기도와 같은 종교적 요소 나타남

 

4. 왕의 조서

Opening
King Ptolemy to the council and the people in miletus, greetings.

Body
I have in former times shown all zeal in behalf of your city both through a gift of land and through care in all other matters as was proper because I saw that our father was kindly disposed toward the city and was the author of many benefits for you and had relieved you of harsh and oppressive taxes and tolls which certain of the kings had imposed.
Now also, as you guard steadfastly your city and our friendship and alliance–for my son and Callicrates and the other friends who are with you have written me what a demonstration you have made of good-will toward us–we knowing these things praise you highly and shall try to requite your people through benefactions, and we summon you for the future to maintain the same policy of friendship toward us so that in view of your faithfulness we may exercise even more our care for the city.

Closing
We have ordered Hegestratus to address you at greater length on these subjects and to give you our greeting. Farewell.

– 보내는 사람의 권위를 대신할 수 있는 전달자의 권위

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사도 바울의 편지들과 고대 편지 양식의 차이점

1. 편지의 길이 : 바울의 편지는 당시 편지 양식에 비교할 때 굉장히 길다.

2. 사도성 : 바울의 편지는 자신이 가고 싶지만 가지 못하는 상황을 전제한다.

3. 복합적 형태 : 바울의 편지는 주변인의 안부를 묻는 가족 편지의 양식과 유사한 면이 있지만 당시 그저 같은 방향으로 가는 사람 편에 부치던 가족 편지에 비해 바울의 편지는 그 사도성을 입증할 수 있는 측근에 의해 전달되는 왕의 조서와 유사한 양상을 보였다.

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